The Russian Revolution Late tsarist Russia Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. For the sake of stability, tsarism insisted on rigid autocracy that effectively shut out the population from participation in government.
The results, however, overwhelmed him. His series of reform measures led to the collapse of the Communist system in Europe and the disintegration of the USSR, the Federation invented by Lenin ina union imposed by force and composed of nations for centuries subjugated by the Russian Empire, going back to Ivan the Terrible 16th century and later by Peter the Great in the 18th.
The "first State of workers and peasants" as the Bolsheviks claimed was toppled by perestroika for one simple reason: When one tries to thoroughly reform it he ends up "accidentally" dismantling it. It is not amenable to change. Rather, it must be pulled up from the root and discarded.
The same thing happened in the rest of Eastern Europe, and is happening, gradually, in China and Vietnam. This is very unfortunate, as the best thing that could happen in Cuba is the introduction of genuine reform, which would mark the beginning of the end of Castroism.
But there is no Cuban Gorbachev or Deng Xiaoping. At least none in sight. Theirs is the same phobia harbored by the architects of the Communist regime, to the point that the word "reform" does not exist in the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary jargon.
Karl Marx forbade it, on the grounds that all "reform" was a bourgeois relic of 18th-century utopian socialism. Leninmeanwhile, in an article published in in Pravda Truda, wrote that reform "in practice means the renunciation of Marxism and the doctrine's replacement with bourgeois social policy.
Not enough capital is created The fact is that there are no substantial changes on the Island, not even in the economic sphere, which desperately needs a resurgent private sector. Despite its services, cell phones, the selling of houses and cars, private restaurants, easy access to travel abroad, cooperatives for certain services and activities, and other small-time operations, there is insufficient gross capital formation in the country, or value added that is invested instead of being consumed.
And without capital formation and investment there is no economic growth. This is why the Island's economy does not flourish. In addition, to put it in Marxian terms, services not directly linked to industrial production self-employed Cubans do not increase the volume of goods to be socially distributed.
People do not emerge from poverty like that. To make matters worse, instead of expanding the changes undertaken, the regime has largely backtracked, and is throwing up new obstacles for the self-employed.
Chinese reformist leader Deng Xiaoping's famous phrase "To get rich is glorious" has been stood on its head: The Castros will not loosen their grip It's simple:The Soviet Union was a world superpower that helped to shape and define almost the whole 20th century.
The Soviet Union formed out of the ashes of World War One, was a victor of World War Two and went on to challenge the United States as a world superpower during the Cold War.
Nine months later the Soviet Union invaded, executed Amin and “Russia’s Vietnam” was off and running. The kidnapping and assassination of Ambassador Adolph Dubs ended any meaningful diplomatic effort by the U.S.
to prevent a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. 2) What was the nature of the Soviet regime, and to what extent it evolved during its history. 3) To what extent the collapse of the USSR was inevitable consequence of the political, social, and economic processes that took place since Stalin's death ().
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist federation in Eurasia that existed from to Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, [d] its government and economy were highly centralized. the Soviet Union was reformable, noting that even President Ronald Reagan recog-nized and applauded Gorbachev’s reforms.
But reform was not enough. The Soviet Union needed to be t r a n s f o r m e d, and that was a process it would not have survived.
T he Soviet system under Gorbachev did take remarkable strides toward political transformation. Dissolution: Sovereignty and the Breakup of the Soviet Union by Edward W.
Walker Dissolution: Sovereignty and the Breakup of the Soviet Union by Edward W. Walker (pp. ).