Hypotheses A hypothesis is a tentative statement— based on theory, prior research, or general observation—asserting a relationship between one factor and something else. A descriptive hypothesis is a tentative statement about the nature or frequency of a particular group or behavior.
By addressing the opposition you achieve the following goals: You were far more likely to get them to say yes if you anticipated and addressed all of their concerns before they expressed them.
You did not want to belittle those concerns, or make them feel dumb, because this only put them on the defensive, and lead to a conclusion that went against your wishes.
The same is true in your writing. How do I accomplish this? Jot down several good reasons why you support that particular side of the argument. Look at the reasons you provided and try to argue with yourself. Why would someone disagree with each of these points?
What parts of this issue will concern my opposing audience the most? Find the necessary facts, evidence, quotes from experts, etc. Carefully organize your paper so that it moves smoothly from defending your own points to sections where you argue against the opposition. Your entire paper should be more or less written by this point.
The executive summary is a shortened version of your paper, that a policy maker could read. The basic theoretical and empirical background should be summarized along with your main arguments and recommendations.
This means that your executive summary should be between 1 and 3 pages. Your executive summary should clearly articulate how your argument contributes to the production of new knowledge in the field.
For more on executive summaries, see: Executive Summary Guidelines The executive summary is the most important part of a policy paper because it synthesizes complex data into a succinct and coherent whole that allows a decision-maker or general reader in a few minutes of reading to glean the problem, supporting evidence, and solutions.
As such, the executive summary is often the most difficult part of the policy paper to write. Yet there are basic steps that will help turn complex ideas into succinct and powerful arguments guaranteed to capture the attention of a busy reader.
You will, for example, need to state explicitly not only the current problem but the current situation, sign post the pros and cons of your reasoning for change, and highlight your key findings and recommendations.
This workshop examines techniques culled from executive summaries ranging from short memos produced for the Spring Exercise to high-level international policy papers and allows you time to try out an executive summary on your own topic. The executive summary highlights the problem and recommendations but also serves as a road map into the structure of your memo, allowing the reader to follow the course of your analysis.
The executive summary does not the chronicle the story that lies behind the problem nor does it track the development of your research. It telegraphs your key recommendations, relying on your authority as a policy analyst.
It summarizes your key points for a busy reader and highlights the recommendations in a memorable way to guide future discussions. After you have finished your research, it can help to write a draft of the executive summary as a structuring device for the longer paper.
You will return to the executive summary again at the end of the writing process for the full paper, revising it to make sure that it matches your analysis, findings, and ultimate recommendations. Even a short, two-page memo can benefit from a brief executive summary that foregrounds the recommendations or findings discussed later in the body.
In telegraphic style, explain who the target audience is i. Core characteristics of the Executive Summary—all in brief: Examples of Executive Summaries These examples highlight excellent formats, ranging from short findings to extensive international policy recommendations.
What Leaders Need to Know This policy analysis paper synthesizes and prioritizes its findings, offering recommendations as subsets. This policy analysis paper first highlights the findings, building on them for the subsequent recommendations.
Lengthy professional white paper: Pew Center, Asia Society. JanuaryA Roadmap for U.summarize your views of the summarize your views of the "proper" relationships of women and men.
what in your socialization has led you to have these views? Submitted: 6 years ago. Category: Homework. Show More. Show Less. Ask Your Own Homework Question. Share this conversation. These essays introduce three of the primary areas of influence on socialization (family, gender, and community) before turning to the negative effects that exclusion and isolation present on a healthy community and sense of self.
These are complex phenomena; in addition to the sorts of individual hostility and prejudice described above, they typically encompass histories of institutionalized prejudice and discrimination, difficult life conditions, strong (and prejudiced) leadership, social support for hostile acts, and socialization that accepts explicit discrimination.
Gender socialization is the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex; boys are raised to conform to the male gender role and girls are raised to conform to the female gender role. These guidelines provide practitioners with a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay and bisexual clients, and basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships and the education and training of psychologists.
The lack of research on psychological gender differences in relation to advertising format has led us to the development of the following propositions. These proposals should be viewed as initial steps toward understanding how knowledge of psychological gender differences can .