There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means.
This was a supposed plot by the Jesuits, with the blessing of the Pope, to murder the king, Charles II, and put his Catholic brother and heir, James, the Duke of York, on the throne so he could re-establish Catholicism in England.
A majority of the English people believed in the Popish Plot. Roger North, a loyal court supporter, said, "One might have denied Christ with less contest than the Plot". Several historians, such as John Miller in Popery and Politics in EnglandMichael Finlayson in Historians, Puritanism and the English Revolution and John Kenyon in The Popish Plot have written that the anti-Catholic fears expressed during the Popish Plot were based on an irrational hysteria because the Catholic community in England was small and peaceful and the Protestant religion was not in any obvious danger in the country.
The main problem with these historians' agrument is that they have failed to take into account the impact of European history on political events in England during the 's. This paper will attempt to show there was a valid and rational basis behind the anti-Catholic fears expressed by the English people in the 's.
Charles II The strength and persistence of anti-Catholicism at all levels of society was one of the most striking features of seventeenth century England. It was one of the basic underlying and re-occurring themes of seventeenth century England.
The intensity of anti-Catholic fears rose and fell according to the political situation of the time. In the late 's and during the 's, spanish past papers writing intensity of anti-Catholicism was on the rise again due to the pro-French policies of Charles II's government, especially its foreign policy.
These political events must be viewed against the backdrop of the successful Counter-Reformation in Europe in the seventeenth century and the rise of France as the new Catholic superpower in Europe in the late 's under its king, Louis XIV. Fears of France were based on the fact that Louis XIV was the prime champion of political absolutism and the leader of the Counter-Reformation in Europe in the 's.
The English believed Louis' aggressive foreign policy that started in with the invasion of the Spanish Netherlands and continued throughout the 's indicated a definite plan to establish a French and Catholic hegemony in Europe.
The English people's fears of Catholicism were primarily political in nature. They did not fear the spread of Catholicism in England through the appeal of its religious doctrines.
However, the English did fear that a powerful Catholic country such as France would use its impressive military strength to impose Catholicism on England in a manner similar to Spain's attempted invasion.
They assumed Catholic rule would mean the loss of their property, their parliamentary form of government, the rule of law and their religion. French power, Catholicism, political absolutism and the persecution of Protestants were all seen by the English people as interchangeable parts of the same threatening force in Europe in the 's.
Louis XIV Besides these growing fears about French power, the English were concerned about the increasing influence of Catholics at the Stuart court in the late 's and the early 's.
They worried that court Catholics would use their positions of power to promote pro-Catholic policies which would be detrimental to England's best interests. These worries seemed to be confirmed by the pro-French policies of Charles II's government during the 's.
To the English, support for pro-French policies was equated with support for Catholicism and absolutism.
This led to fears there was a plot to change the religion and form of government in England to that of France. It was the English people's fears of Louis XIV combined with their hostility to the pro-French policies of Charles II's government that led to the rise in anti-Catholicism in England in the 's and created the atmosphere that allowed the Popish Plot to be widely believed in In order to study the rising intensity in anti-Catholicism in England during the 's, it is necessary to examine the long-term English anti-Catholic tradition, the position of Catholics in England, the effects of the Counter-Reformation on England, the rise of court Catholicism and the impact of anti-Catholicism on English culture and politics in the 's.
The most important emphasis in the paper will be on the discussion of the pro-French religious and political policies of Charles II's government in the late 's and during the 's. The main argument begins with the French invasion of the Spanish Netherlands in and ends with the beginning of the Popish Plot in The Anti-Catholic Tradition in England To begin the investigation of the events leading up to the outburst of anti-Catholicism during the Popish Plot, it is necessary to understand the long term anti-Catholic tradition in England, which began with the English Reformation.
InHenry VIII's Parliament passed a law that repudiated any papal jurisdiction over the English Church and declared the king to be its sole head. She is known by the epithet, "Bloody Mary" because of her cruel persecutions in which about Protestants were burned at the stake for refusing to renounce their religious beliefs.
The memories of these persecutions engendered a deep hostility to Catholicism in England. On Elizabeth I's ascension to the throne inProtestantism was permanently re-established in England.
Elizabeth's reputation as the Protestant savior assured her a prominent position in the English anti-Catholic tradition.
In the later Elizabethan and early Stuart period, the best known examples of Catholic threats are the Catholic assassination plots against Elizabeth I in the 's and 's, the attempted invasion of England by the Spanish Armada and the Gunpowder Plot, in which a small group of Catholics conspired to blow up the king and members of Parliament.
To the English, these historical events provided graphic proof of the cruelty and intolerance of Catholics in power and served as a reminder of what would happen if Catholicism was ever restored in England. This war affected England because James I's son-in-law, the Protestant Elector of the Palatinate, had lost his lands to a victorious Catholic army.Translate Read.
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Spanish Paper 02 Section II Letter past tense.-Report on one or more activities. Outline details in the future tense. Content In addition to addressing the letter required specific characteristics with regard to format. The candidate adhered to the format for letter writing by including place, date, a salutation, an appropriate letter.
Page 15 [Tur n Over 4 Part 2 Qu estions Th e people below are all looking for a book to buy. On the opposite page there are eight book reviews.
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