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History of the word and concept "information" The English word apparently derives from the Latin stem information- of the nominative informatio: Inform itself comes via French informer from the Latin verb informare, which means to give form, or to form an idea of.
Furthermore, Latin itself already contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear.
It literally means "bears fully" or "conveys fully". In this regard it can be interpreted to communicate information to the one decoding that specific type of sign. This is something that occurs frequently with the etymology of many words in ancient and modern Greek where there is a very strong denotative relationship between the signifier, e.
Information theory approach[ edit ] Main article: The mapping may be probabilistic or deterministic. It may have memory or be memoryless.
Inputs are of two kinds; some inputs are important to the function of the organism for example, food or system energy by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology  Dusenbery called these causal inputs.
Other inputs information are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time and perhaps another place. Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input.
In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is mainly but not only, e. As representation and complexity[ edit ] The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense.
These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, and any of its subsets R. R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational and hence, conceptual information about S.
Vigo then defines the amount of information that R conveys about S as the rate of change in the complexity of S whenever the objects in R are removed from S. Under "Vigo information", pattern, invariance, complexity, representation, and information—five fundamental constructs of universal science—are unified under a novel mathematical framework.
As an influence that leads to transformation[ edit ] Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind.
One might argue though that for a human to consciously define a pattern, for example a nucleotide, naturally involves conscious information processing.
Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating due to feedback in the system can be called information.
In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose. For example, Gregory Bateson defines "information" as a "difference that makes a difference".
Complex definitions of both "information" and "knowledge" make such semantic and logical analysis difficult, but the condition of "transformation" is an important point in the study of information as it relates to knowledge, especially in the business discipline of knowledge management.
In this practice, tools and processes are used to assist a knowledge worker in performing research and making decisions, including steps such as: Review information to effectively derive value and meaning Reference metadata if available Establish relevant contextoften from many possible contexts Derive new knowledge from the information Make decisions or recommendations from the resulting knowledge Stewart argues that transformation of information into knowledge is critical, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise.
The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms  argues that information only provides an answer to a posed question. Whether the answer provides knowledge depends on the informed person. So a generalized definition of the concept should be: When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets.
Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense. As a property in physics[ edit ] Main article: Physical information Information has a well-defined meaning in physics.
Bekenstein claimed that a growing trend in physics was to define the physical world as being made up of information itself and thus information is defined in this way see Digital physics. Examples of this include the phenomenon of quantum entanglementwhere particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light.Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon [Anthony Harkins] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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According to the definition given by Wikipedia, Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.
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The significance of good governance in achieving social and economic prosperity has recently attracted different literatures on development studies. “Poverty is the worst form of violence”, said Gandhi; and there is no doubt that poverty reduces a person’s ability to lead a normal life.
Poverty is a state that refers to the dearth of all essential commodities necessary to lead a content life. It is a multi faceted . Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements.