Kamchatka research paper

President Ronald Reagan 's intentions and openly fearful he was planning a pre-emptive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union. These fears culminated in RYANthe code name for a secret intelligence-gathering program initiated by Andropov to detect a potential nuclear sneak attack which he believed Reagan was plotting. In addition, pursuit was made more difficult, according to Soviet Air Force Captain Aleksandr Zuyevwho defected to the West inbecause ten days before Arctic gales had knocked out the key warning radar on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Kamchatka research paper

In August an attempted breakout by the Russians resulted in a second defeat at the Battle of the Yellow Sea. The surviving Russian ships Kamchatka research paper now either contained in Port Arthur, Vladivostock or friendly ports to which they had fled.

Forty-five ships from the Russian Baltic Fleet would sail 18, miles around the world from its bases in northern Europe, defeat the Japanese navy and relieve Port Arthur thus bringing about a swift end to the war as Japan relied on her navy to support her land forces.

The epic journey that followed would be highly comic were it not for the fact that 4, Russian naval personnel died as a result. From the outset, the expedition was doomed to failure yet no one sought to question the folly of the plan.

InRussia was a backward country. In terms of geographical area it was the largest nation in the world, and the Tsar ruled over an empire which spanned eastern Europe and Asia incorporating many different races. On paper, Russia was a major military power - in reality her armies were poorly equipped and trained and as a naval power she was third rate despite expanding the size of her navy to rival that of other European powers.

Russian power was certainly over estimated by other countries. Because of its geography, Russian naval activity was split between three operational areas - the Far East, the Baltic and the Black Sea. Russian naval operations in the Black Sea were restricted under several international treaties which hindered the development of Russian naval ambitions.

This theatre was the only area in which Russia could hope to secure ports in warm water with access to the seas throughout the year but the numbers and size of ships which Russia could station in the area was limited, together with their operational activities.

Kamchatka research paper any ships needed to reinforce the Far Eastern fleet had to be transferred from the Baltic on the other side of the world. The Baltic fleet's task of completing an 18, mile voyage, presented a considerable logistical problem as the fleet would need to re-supply and refuel en route.

Unlike the Royal Navy, the Russians had no bases around the globe and international treaties prevented them from using the ports of other friendly foreign powers such as France.

Hence a plan to re-supply the fleet was devised - freighters chartered from the German Hamburg-Amerika line would refuel the ships at sea. Potentially, the Baltic fleet was a large and powerful force. Inthe leading naval powers were Britain, France and Germany.

The United States had entered into a period of significant naval expansion following years in which its fleet had been a predominantly coastal protection force. Italy had a small but technically advanced fleet and Italian naval architects and designers were held in high regard.

The emerging naval power of the time was Japan whose highly disciplined navy and officer corps had been trained by the British. In contrast the Russian navy faced several problems.

Prior to the launch of " HMS Dreadnought ", which lead to standardised design for battleshipsmany ships of the day were a bizarre mixture of different experiments in naval architecture, which were mostly untried in combat conditions.

This often resulted in ships being top heavy as the latest innovations were added to the superstructure causing vessels to become unstable. The French navy was the most significant victim of this period of experimentation and had lost several ships which had keeled over and sank due to design faults.

The Baltic fleet suffered similar problems with some of its battleships being as much as 1, tons overweight. In practice this meant that the secondary armament was often underwash and could not be fired. The belt armour was also below the waterline and therefore offered no protection against enemy shells.

An example of the hazards posed by these design flaws can be seen in one of the fleet's battleships " Oroyol " which sank while anchored in Kronstadt harbour and had to be re-floated.

Russian Manpower As if the problems with logistics and ship design were not enough, Admiral Rozhestvensky - the unfortunate soul in charge of the expedition - had a third source of problems - the quality of his crews.

The majority of Russian naval ratings were uneducated peasants and did not come from the coastal areas of Russia, consequently they lacked any experience of the sea. The Baltic Fleet spent long periods of the year inactive as Russia's northern harbours were iced up for months at a time.

This resulted in limited time being available for training crews in the intricacies of modern naval warfare.

The state of affairs was so bad that one officer on the battleship " Kniaz Suvoroff " said of his gunnery crews that "One half have to be taught everything because they know nothing; the other half because they have forgotten everything; but if they do remember anything then it is obsolete".

To compound the problem it would later emerge that some of the ratings were members of various revolutionary groups who tried to stir up unrest among the crews.

In addition, Rozhestvensky was also dissatisfied with his senior officers. He referred to his obese second-in-command Rear-Admiral Folkersham as "a manure sack" and described the cruiser commander Rear-Admiral Enkvist as "a vast empty space".

Kamchatka research paper

The Voyage Begins These difficulties notwithstanding, on 16th Octoberthe fleet now renamed the Second Pacific Squadron set sail from Libau, in modern Latvia, on its epic voyage. The tone for the expedition was set as the flagship ran aground and one of the escorting cruisers lost its anchor chain.

While the fleet waited for the flagship to re-float and the cruiser to retrieve its misplaced anchor, a destroyer accidentally rammed the battleship " Oslyaba " and had to return to Reval Tallinn in modern Estonia for repairs.By continuing to browse this website, you automatically accept the use of cookies to record visit statistics and enhance user experience.

Click. Nuclear Power in Russia (Updated October ) Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for an expanded role of nuclear energy, including development of new reactor technology. Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.

The pinkish red area is the Kamchatka Krai which includes some of the mainland to the north. This study reports plastic debris pollution in the deep-sea based on the information from a recently developed database.

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Kamchatka Essays