Biography[ edit ] Born to Gerrit and Evertine G. After working in the industry for ten years, Hofstede entered part-time doctoral study at Groningen University in The Netherlands, and received his PhD in social psychology cum laude in After leaving the military he worked in industry from tostarting as a factory hand in Amsterdam. He founded and managed the Personnel Research Department.
Emphasis on reciprocation of gifts, favors, and greetings; Negative association with economic growth. Restraint The dimension of indulgence vs. A society that practices indulgence makes room for the comparatively free gratification of natural and basic human drives pertaining to indulging in fun and enjoying life.
The quality of restraint describes a society that holds back need gratification and tries to control it through stringent social norms. Arab, African, Asian and Latin countries have a higher score with regards to power distance index while Germanic and Anglo countries possess a lower score.
For instance, Guatemala has a score of 95 while Israel scores 13 with a very low power distance, whereas the United States stands somewhere in between with a score of So far as the individualism index is concerned, a substantial gap exists between Eastern and less developed countries on one hand and Western and developed countries on the other.
While Europe and North America are highly individualistic, Latin America, Africa, and Asia score very low on the individualism index with strong collectivist values. Highest uncertainty avoidance scores are possessed by Latin American countries, Japan as well as Eastern and Southern Europe.
The score is lower for Chinese, Nordic, and Anglo culture countries. For instance, Germany has a higher uncertainty avoidance index with a score of 65, compared to Sweden, which scores only Nordic countries exhibit low masculinity, with Sweden and Norway scoring 5 and 8 respectively.
Again, Anglo countries, Japan, and European countries such as Switzerland, Austria and Hungary have high masculinity scores. However, often there is a failure to manage the project effectively due to existing cultural differences between local communities and foreign engineers.
This case study of one such project in Eastern Ghanasupervised by a British engineer and project manager, explores some of the critical issues that can arise in a cross-cultural project.
The engineer expected the community to express their opinions regarding the sanitation and water project, including the procedure of the project, the design or any other facet that the community wanted to discuss.
It was also noticed during the project that if individuals ever voiced their opinions, they preferred not to express opinions that conflicted with what others had expressed.
For instance, on a particular occasion, the engineer asked the opinions of two women in a family. After the first shared her opinion, the second woman, who was younger, was asked to share hers, but she refused to do so.
Instead, she said that her mother the other womanhad already spoken. In another case, the engineer approached a woman, who had some problems in walking, for her opinion.
In the village, she happened to be the only lady with this problem, so her opinion was sought in order to customize the design for water collection and sanitation systems accordingly. However, this lady was reluctant to voice any opinion regarding this, as she felt that her own well-being was not so much significant considering the entire group.
However, when the other women of the community were asked, one suggested a flat design so that the lady with the walking problem could collect her water easily. At the start of the project, the engineer could more or less comfortably organize the work schedule and ensure good progress.
Many members of the community lent helping hands. However, when the project was drawing to an end, the chief showed a temporary loss of interest due to two reasons.
First, his mother had died and he was arranging for the funeral. Second, he had an affair with a girl in a neighboring village and was more inclined to meet her than perform his duties.
When the community members started returning to work, they seemed lethargic, and the engineer found it very difficult to complete the project within the stipulated deadline. Explanation of the issues based on Hofstede dimensions: The community is from a culture that exhibits high power distance index, wherein subordinates are accustomed to abide by what their seniors tell them to do rather than following more democratic ways.
On the contrary, the engineer came from a culture where the power distance index is low, with flatter power structures, wherein the authority and subordinates worked on more or less equal terms.Gerard Hendrik Hofstede is an influential Dutch writer on the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures, and is an author of several books including Culture's Consequences and Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, co-authored by his son Gert Jan Hofstede/5.
Hofstede also known as Geert Hofstede proposed that national and regional factors contribute to the culture of the organization and eventually influence the behaviour of employees in the organization. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede.
It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to . Conducted by Prof. Geert Hofstede and his research team in Denmark and the Netherlands. The research showed that a large part of the differences among the units could be explained by six factors related to concepts within the field of organisational sociology and the six dimensions were developed based on the literature.
Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. Through the publication of his scholarly book, Culture’s Consequences (, new edition , Geert Hofstede () became the founder of comparative intercultural srmvision.com most popular book, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (, .
According to Geert Hofstede, culture is the mind’s collective programming that differentiates between one category of people and members of one group from another. The term ‘category’ might imply nations, religions, ethnicities, regions across or within nations, genders, organizations, or occupations.