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Gumplowicz defined ethnocentrism as the reasons by virtue of which each group of people believed it had always occupied the highest point not only among contemporaneous peoples and nations but also in Ethnic culture and culture of poverty to all peoples of the historical past  Der Rassenkampf, Characteristics[ edit ] Although central to anthropology, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines the concept of ethnocentrism has been defined and characterized so variously that some scholars have spoken of the "disutility of the ethnocentrism concept" and have wondered whether from the large body of research on ethnocentrism any conclusions could be drawn.
In the Folkways,  Sumner stated that "ethnocentrism is the technical name for this view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it" In the War and Other Essays,  he wrote that "the sentiment of cohesion, internal comradeship, and devotion to the in-group, which carries with it a sense of superiority to any out-group and readiness to defend the interests of the in-group against the out-group, is technically known as ethnocentrism" Forty years later, anthropologist Richard Adams undertook to clear up a confusion.
He noted that one scholar, G. Murdock, defined ethnocentrism as "the tendency to exalt the in-group and to depreciate other groups," which made out-group antagonism the inevitable concomitant of in-group solidarity, but that another, M.
Herkovits, defined ethnocentrism as "the point of view that one's way of life is to be preferred to all others. The first is in-group consciousness, a sense of communal interests found even in sub-human animals, but the second arises from the processes of socialization and enculturation, and has no counterpart among sub-human groups.
Merton commented that "although the practice of seeing one's own group as the center of things is empirically correlated with a belief in superiority, centrality and superiority need to be kept analytically distinct in order to deal with patterns of alienation from one's membership group and contempt for it.
However, since people are accustomed to their native culture, it can be difficult for them to see the behaviors of people from a different culture from the viewpoint of that culture rather than from their own.
Explicit ethnocentrism involves the ability to express the feelings about outsiders people from other groupsand implicit ethnocentrism refers to the inhibition of the feelings for outsiders.
Franz Boas committed himself to overthrowing 19th-century evolutionism, and with his methodological innovations sought to show the error of the proposition that race determined cultural capacity.
It is somewhat difficult for us to recognize that the value which we attribute to our own civilization is due to the fact that we participate in this civilization, and that it has been controlling all our actions from the time of our birth; but it is certainly conceivable that there may be other civilizations, based perhaps on different traditions and on a different equilibrium of emotion and reason, which are of no less value than ours, although it may be impossible for us to appreciate their values without having grown up under their influence.
Cultural relativism in anthropology is a methodological principle, indispensable for investigating and comparing societies in as unprejudiced way as possible without using a developmental scale that is usually irrelevant.
Both urged anthropologists to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Boas developed the principle of cultural relativism where the "context" plays an important role to the understanding of other people's values,  and Malinowski developed the theory of functionalism as guides for producing non-ethnocentric studies of different cultures.
Mead and Benedict were two of Boas's students. Examples of ethnocentrism include religiocentric constructs claiming a divine association like "divine nation", " God's Own Country ", " God's Chosen People ", and "God's Promised Land".
Identification always relies upon a difference that it seeks to overcome, and that its aim is accomplished only by reintroducing the difference it claims to have vanquished.
The one with whom I identify is not me, and that "not being me" is the condition of the identification. Otherwise, as Jacqueline Rose reminds us, identification collapses into identity, which spells the death of identification itself.
In that work, Kant argued that human understanding could not be described according to the laws that applied to the operations of nature, and that its operations were therefore free, not determined, and that ideas regulated human action, sometimes independent of material interests.
Following Kant, Boas pointed out, for instance, the starving Eskimos who, because of their religious beliefs,would not hunt seals to feed themselves, thus showing that no pragmatic or material calculus determined their values The Mind of Primitive Man, New York: It involves the brand and quality of the products.
The social identity approach to psychology suggests that ethnocentricity is caused by a strong identification with one's own culture that links one's self-esteem to a positive view of that culture.
It's theorized that in order to maintain that positive view, people make social comparisons that cast competing cultural groups in an unfavorable light. It was found that in randomized controlled trials "oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation".
This also happens with new members of a group where the dominant group may perceive the new ones as a threat.Ethnic Culture and Culture of Poverty: The Gypsy/Roma The intersection of the two conflicting cultures can be seen in the following statement made by many and is commonly heard.
"I have a good friend who is a Gypsy, but he doesn't really count. Racial and ethnic minorities have worse overall health than that of White Americans. Health disparities may stem from economic determinants, education, geography and neighborhood, environment, lower quality care, inadequate access to care, inability to navigate the system, provider ignorance or bias, and stress (Bahls, ).
Culture and Development in Children's Play [From: Hyun, E. (). Making sense of developmentally and culturally appropriate practice (DCAP) in early childhood education. Mar 23, · The Culture Of Poverty Scholar and author Sudhir Venkatesh and sociology professor William Julius Wilson help solve the culture of poverty puzzle.
Can . understanding of the social and cultural mechanisms that produce poverty–of “how” culture matters for poverty. individual, the virtue of work, the primacy of the family, and the .
Note that “Deaf culture” is a positive term, indicative of pride and a communal identity, whereas terms like “hearing-impaired” and “deafness” do not connote any particular pride or sense of community.