Population has been rising in India at a rapid speed. This rise is mainly due to fall in death rate and more birth rate. This pressure of population proves hindrance in the way of economic development. Due to continuous rise in population, there is chronic unemployment and under employment in India.
Sociology as Life, Practice, and Promise, rev. For more information click here. Government programs come and go as political parties swing us back and forth between stock answers whose only effect seems to be who gets elected. But on a deeper level, we tend to think about them in ways that keep us from getting at their complexity in the first place.
It is a basic tenet of sociological practice that to solve a social problem we have to begin by seeing it as social.
Without this, we look in the wrong place for explanations and in the wrong direction for visions of change. Consider, for example, poverty, which is arguably the most far-reaching, long-standing cause of chronic suffering there is. The magnitude of poverty is especially ironic in a country like the United States whose enormous wealth dwarfs that of entire continents.
More than one out of every six people in the United States lives in poverty or near-poverty. For children, the rate is even higher.
Even in the middle class there is a great deal of anxiety about the possibility of falling into poverty or something close to it — through divorce, for example, or simply being laid off as companies try to improve their competitive advantage, profit margins, and stock prices by transferring jobs overseas.
How can there be so much misery and insecurity in the midst of such abundance? It is simply one end of an overall distribution of income and wealth in society as a whole. As such, poverty is both a structural aspect of the system and an ongoing consequence of how the system is organized and the paths of least resistance that shape how people participate in it.
The system we have for producing and distributing wealth is capitalist. It is organized in ways that allow a small elite to control most of the capital — factories, machinery, tools — used to produce wealth. It also leaves a relatively small portion of the total of income and wealth to be divided among the rest of the population.
In part, then, poverty exists because the economic system is organized in ways that encourage the accumulation of wealth at one end and creates conditions of scarcity that make poverty inevitable at the other. But the capitalist system generates poverty in other ways as well. In the drive for profit, for example, capitalism places a high value on competition and efficiency.
This motivates companies and their managers to control costs by keeping wages as low as possible and replacing people with machines or replacing full-time workers with part-time workers.
It makes it a rational choice to move jobs to regions or countries where labor is cheaper and workers are less likely to complain about poor working conditions, or where laws protecting the natural environment from industrial pollution or workers from injuries on the job are weak or unenforced.
Capitalism also encourages owners to shut down factories and invest money elsewhere in enterprises that offer a higher rate of return.
These kinds of decisions are a normal consequence of how capitalism operates as a system, paths of least resistance that managers and investors are rewarded for following.
But the decisions also have terrible effects on tens of millions of people and their families and communities. Even having a full-time job is no guarantee of a decent living, which is why so many families depend on the earnings of two or more adults just to make ends meet.
All of this is made possible by the simple fact that in a capitalist system most people neither own nor control any means of producing a living without working for someone else.
To these social factors we can add others. A high divorce rate, for example, results in large numbers of single-parent families who have a hard time depending on a single adult for both childcare and a living income. The centuries-old legacy of racism in the United States continues to hobble millions of people through poor education, isolation in urban ghettos, prejudice, discrimination, and the disappearance of industrial jobs that, while requiring relatively little formal education, nonetheless once paid a decent wage.
These were the jobs that enabled many generations of white European immigrants to climb out of poverty, but which are now unavailable to the masses of urban poor. Clearly, patterns of widespread poverty are inevitable in an economic system that sets the terms for how wealth is produced and distributed.
But public debate about poverty and policies to deal with it focus almost entirely on the latter with almost nothing to say about the former.The essays in this collection have a problem that infects much of sociology: an underlying, unproven assumption that people's problems are caused by society, rather than the more likely explanation, merely influenced by society.
Reasons of poverty are numerous, and it is difficult to analyze the entire complex of causes of such a global issue. However, some of them are obvious: a colonial background, wars and political instability, dense population combined with low agricultural capabilities, and certain psychological traits of poor people.
Understanding Poverty [Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee, Roland Benabou, Dilip Mookherjee] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Understanding poverty and what to do about it, is perhaps the central concern of all of economics. Yet the lay public almost never gets to hear what leading professional economists have to say about it.
This volume brings together twenty-eight essays by . Famine had been a recurrent feature of life the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, most notoriously during British srmvision.coms in India resulted in more than 60 million deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries.
The last major famine was the Bengal famine of A famine occurred in the state of Bihar in December on a much. Literally, poverty means scarcity or few. From social and economic point of view, it refers to that state or condition which fails to provide minimum necessities of life.
Thus, poverty leads to extreme lower standard of living, denying even the basic requirements of life to a vast majority of population. Poverty in Mexico is measured under parameters such as nutrition, clean water, shelter, education, health care, social security, quality and basic services in the household, income and social cohesion as defined by social development laws in the country.
It is divided in two categories: Moderate poverty and Extreme poverty. While less than 2% of Mexico's population lives below the.