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General Principles for Assessing Higher-Order Thinking Constructing an assessment always involves these basic principles: Specify clearly and exactly what it is you want to assess. Design tasks or test items that require students to demonstrate this knowledge or skill.
Decide what you will take as evidence of the degree to which students have shown this knowledge or skill. This general three-part process applies to all assessment, including assessment of higher-order thinking. Assessing higher-order thinking almost always involves three additional principles: Present something for students to think about, usually in the form of introductory text, visuals, scenarios, resource material, or problems of some sort.
Use novel material—material that is new to the student, not covered in class and thus subject to recall. Distinguish between level of difficulty easy versus hard and level of thinking lower-order thinking or recall versus higher-order thinkingand control for each separately.
The first part of this chapter briefly describes the general principles that apply to all assessment, because without those, assessment of anything, including higher-order thinking, fails. The second section expands on the three principles for assessing higher-order thinking. A third section deals with interpreting student responses when assessing higher-order thinking.
Whether you are interpreting work for formative feedback and student improvement or scoring work for grading, you should look for qualities in the work that are signs of appropriate thinking. Basic Assessment Principles Begin by specifying clearly and exactly the kind of thinking, about what content, you wish to see evidence for.
Check each learning goal you intend to assess to make sure that it specifies the relevant content clearly, and that it specifies what type of performance or task the student will be able to do with this content.
If these are less than crystal clear, you have some clarifying to do. This is more important than some teachers realize. It may seem like fussing with wording. After all, what's the difference between "the student understands what slope is" and "the student can solve multistep problems that involve identifying and calculating slope"?
It's not just that one is wordier than the other. The second one specifies what students are able to do, specifically, that is both the target for learning and the way you will organize your assessment evidence.
If your target is just a topic, and you share it with students in a statement like "This week we're going to study slope," you are operating with the first kind of goal "the student understands what slope is".
Arguably, one assessment method would be for you to ask students at the end of the week, "Do you understand slope now?
What would you put on it? How would you know whether to write test items or performance tasks? One teacher might put together a test with 20 questions asking students to calculate slope using the point-slope formula.
Another teacher might ask students to come up with their own problem situation in which finding the slope of a line is a major part of the solution, write it up as a small project, and include a class demonstration.
These divergent approaches would probably result in different appraisals of students' achievement. Which teacher has evidence that the goal was met? As you have figured out by now, I hope, the point here is that you can't tell, because the target wasn't specified clearly enough.
Even with the better, clearer target—"The student can solve multistep problems that involve identifying and calculating slope"—you still have a target that's clear to only the teacher.
Students are the ones who have to aim their thinking and their work toward the target. Before studying slope, most students would not know what a "multistep problem that involves identifying and calculating slope" looks like.
To really have a clear target, you need to describe the nature of the achievement clearly for students, so they can aim for it. In this case you might start with some examples of the kinds of problems that require knowing the rate of increase or decrease of some value with respect to the range of some other value.
For example, suppose some physicians wanted to know whether and at what rate the expected life span for U. What data would they need?
What would the math look like?8th Grade Social Studies Colonial Period Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: History 47 % and Economics 16% Purpose/Goal(s): The colony of Georgia was officially founded on February 12, The first column (Content Outline) lists the major topics the assessment will cover.
The outline can be as simple or as detailed as you need to describe the content domain for your learning goals. When litigation started in , the percentages of African American and Hispanic firefighters in New York had increased to just % and %, respectively.
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Martin Writing Assignments! Below are links to each of the major writing assignments we may be . This page provides a summary of the key fifth grade curriculum and learning objectives for language arts, math, social studies, and science. Under each is a more detailed description of what children learn in fifth grade subjects, including detailed lesson descriptions of Time4Learning learning activities.
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